The United States is in the midst of a racial and economic crisis that is hurting the country’s black community and leading to the killing of African Americans by police, according to a new report.
In a new study published in the journal Social Science Research, researchers at Johns Hopkins University found that black Americans are far more likely to be arrested than whites for crimes ranging from shoplifting to marijuana possession.
They also reported higher rates of incarceration and higher rates on probation and parole than whites.
The study is the first to document this type of racial bias among law enforcement officials and found that the racial disparity was not confined to police departments, as other studies have shown.
“The current situation is that law enforcement officers in the United States are more likely than other people to act against black people,” said senior author Joshua Shapiro, who is a professor at the Hopkins School of Public Health.
The problem is, when you have people who can’t do what they want to do, then there is an incentive to make sure they don’t get caught.” “
This is a system where there are people who are more inclined to do things than people who don’t.
The problem is, when you have people who can’t do what they want to do, then there is an incentive to make sure they don’t get caught.”
Shapiro, a doctoral student in sociology at the Johns Hopkins School, said the data showed that law-enforcement officials are often targeting African Americans and are “in essence telling people that they’re criminals.”
He said it is “pretty clear” that the system is racially biased.
The report, titled The Race Problem in American Law Enforcement, was conducted by the Johns Wayne State University Crime Prevention Research Center (CPRRC) and the University of Southern California Crime Lab, among others.
It surveyed more than 100 police departments across the country.
It found that “black” and “Hispanic” officers were far more prone to arrest, which the researchers attributed to racial bias.
A “white” officer was less likely to get arrested.
The research found that officers were more likely not to report crimes they committed to the police department than the average police officer, but were less likely than police officers to report any crime to the national media.
Officers were also more likely, if they reported any crime, to report a crime to a federal agency such as the Bureau of Justice Statistics than a state agency such in California, Georgia, New York or Texas.
Police officers also were more willing to report the theft of a car to a local police officer than a federal officer, the report found.
Shapiro said there is a huge difference between reporting a crime and being arrested.
For example, if you were a white, working-class male, and you are caught with a car, the chances are pretty good that you will be arrested.
But if you are black, you are more at risk.
“If you are a black person, your chances are much higher,” Shapiro said.
The study did not include the impact of bias on the arrest rates for white and Hispanic officers. “
There is no excuse for what you are doing.”
The study did not include the impact of bias on the arrest rates for white and Hispanic officers.
“We think there is some sort of bias in the way law enforcement agencies treat people of color, but we didn’t find evidence that there is any kind of systematic discrimination,” Shapiro added.
Shapiro’s research is part of the COPE Initiative, which is a partnership between the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and other civil rights groups.
It was funded by the ACLU and by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.
Shapiro and his colleagues also interviewed more than 400 people of various races.
They found that racial bias can be a significant problem for African Americans.
“You can’t tell a black officer to arrest a white person because they’re black,” said Shapiro.
“But that’s not what happened.”
In some cases, the researchers said, officers were not even aware of the racial bias and were not trained on how to deal with people of other races.
One officer was not aware of a federal law that made it illegal to “harass, intimidate, threaten, harass, or intimidate a person of another race,” and officers often failed to report racial bias to the department.
“It’s a big deal that you can’t just say, ‘Oh, you’re a cop,'” Shapiro said, adding that he thought there was a need for training and other tools to combat racial bias in law enforcement.
“What we found was that it’s a systemic problem, but that there are very few effective interventions,” Shapiro concluded.